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ESAMS
Enhanced Surface-to-Air Missile Simulation
HOST SYSTEMS: SGI, SUN, DEC Alpha, PC, HP
PROGRAM LANGUAGE: FORTRAN 90

ESAMS is a digital computer program used to model the interaction between a single airborne target and a surface-to-air missile (SAM) air defense system. Detailed data has been abstracted from intelligence information and incorporated into the model to provide comprehensive representation of the Soviet land-based and naval missile systems. The CADS1, VT1, Roland 2, Roland 3, Crotale, and IHAWK are also included. The user may individually specify each site’s location, or have ESAMS arrange sites in rectangular, concentric circles, or semi-circles. Missile fire control, guidance, aerodynamics, and movement are also patterned. The model details the characteristics of both ground and missile seeker radar. ESAMS models aircraft from their signature data and optional vulnerability data.

This simulation provides a one-on-one framework used to evaluate air vehicle survivability and tactics optimization. ESAMS can execute simple, straight and level, or complex flight paths. The flight path generator, BLUEMAX, has been incorporated into ESAMS and can be invoked with an input parameter. In addition, the user may specify that the aircraft execute a special maneuver in reaction to one of several situations. Optionally, the aircraft may be instructed to execute a special set of maneuvers, called the initial maneuver set, in reaction to specific event situations such as a missile approach. The aircraft may also be instructed to make a final terminal maneuver to attempt to avoid the missile if impact seems eminent. If the attempt to avoid the missile is successful, then the aircraft will return to its original flight plan. Another optional feature allows the model to base its missile warning system simulation on the general performance of a missile approach radar (MAR). When using reactive maneuvers, the model assumes the aircraft always detects the occurrence of trigger events such as missile launch. If MAR is enabled, detection occurs according to given criteria instead.

If desired, the model can simulate various environmental effects including; atmosphere, terrain, multi-path and clutter. ESAMS can simulate the effects of wind on both aircraft and missiles. The model uses either a curved or flat earth model for masking checks. In addition, ESAMS can be run with native (bald earth with a homogenous surface) or digital terrain input. If native terrain is used, the model calculates its own back-scatter values. With digital terrain, the Ground RAdar Clutter Estimator (GRACE) is used to access site masking and generate back-scatter coefficients for site specific terrain.

Input
The ESAMS model consists of software processing components and a simulation database containing missile, target, and environmental characteristic files. ESAMS can be run with or without a SAM file. SAM files provide the data used to model a particular aircraft/SAM combination; it also instructs the program which data files are required for the run. The most common way to run ESAMS requires the use of a binary SAM file and a user prepared input file. If a SAM file is used, the preprocessor reads the master or data text files to produce the binary SAM file. The preprocessor is designed to; create data, master, or SAM files; update master or SAM files; print the content of data, master, or SAM files; and list the data block headers of master or SAM files. If ESAMS is run with direct data inputs, either a SAM file is not used or parts of the SAM file are superseded. Common blocks and overlays are input directly into ESAMS, where overlays supersede corresponding common block inputs. Vulnerability data, consisting of glitter point data, blast data, vulnerable component data, and miscellaneous variables, is required only if an endgame analysis is requested and varies with the type of endgame option selected.

Output
ESAMS output reports can be produced in either block or column formats. Outputs can be printed to a file or sent to the monitor as directed by the user. Users also tailor the run results to show relevant information. If the event output flag is turned on, the output will include event messages such as, when the target was acquired and when tracking was established. If the missile is launched, several additional messages are output. Detailed missile flyout data are output throughout the flight including missile thrust, weight, velocity, angle of attack and seeker tracking data. If the summary output flag is turned on, the output will include run summaries such as; missile flyout, missile site, and runs. ESAMS also adds an echo of the inputs to every report. Finally, ESAMS includes logic to allow it to make detailed endgame calculations. Miss distance, closest approach, Pk, Pk due to blast, and Pk due to fragmentation are reported when the endgame is enabled.

 

 
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